Annisa Fitri Larassagita, Hana Hana, Untung Susilo


The ability of eel (Anguilla bicolor McClelland) to digest feed protein is highly dependent on the alkaline proteases in the intestine which are trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like. Information on the trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities is needed to understand the digestive capacity of eels to ingest feed proteins. However, the information on this subject is insufficient. This research aimed to determine the activity of trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like of eel on the different body weight and incubation temperature. Three groups of eel stadia were selected to represent different body weight, i.e., elver, yellow eel, and pre-silver stadia, and three different enzyme incubation temperatures of 30, 40, and 50°C was applied. The trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activity were measured using a spectrophotometry method. The results showed the activities of trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like were significantly different between the body size and the intestine segment (P < 0.05). The highest trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities were found in the elver stadia approximately 41.25 ± 0.898 g, in the anterior part of the intestine (P < 0.05). The incubation temperatures were not differed significantly (P > 0.05). This study showed the eel had a higher digestive capacity of protein at elver stadium, mainly occur in the anterior part of the intestine, whereas, the temperature ranges from 30 to 50°C had no significant effect on the enzyme activities.


alkaline; protease; eel; intestine; temperature


Bai SC. 2012. Japanese Eel Aquaculture in Korea. Nutritional Research Key to Further Sustainable Growth: Global Aquaculture Alliance.

Barkia A, Bougatef A, Nasri R, Fetoui E, Balti R, Nasri M. 2010. Trypsin from The Viscera of Bogue (Boops boops): Isolation and Characterisation. Fish Physiol Biochem. 36:893–902. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-009-9365-z

Bougatef A, N Souissi N, Fakhfakh Y, Ellouz-Triki, M Nasri. 2007. Purification and Characterization of Trypsin from The Viscera of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Food Chemistry. 102:343–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.050

Cheng W, Lai CS, Lin YH. 2013. Quantifying The Dietary Protein and Lipid Requirements of Marble Eel Anguilla marmorata with Different Body Weight. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan. 40:135–142.

Chikwati EM, Sahlmann C, Holm H, Penn MH, Krogdahl A, Bakke AM. 2013. Alterations in Digestive Enzyme Activities during The Development of Diet-Induced Enteritis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquaculture. 402–403:28–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.03.023

Chiu S, Pan BS. 2002. Digestive Protease Activities of Juvenile and Adult Eel (Anguilla japonica) Fed with Floating Feed. Aquaculture. 205:141–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00669-X

Dairi AYL, Lumenta C. 2015. Pakan Diameter Berbeda bagi Pertumbuhan Benih Sidat (Anguilla sp.). Budidaya Perairan Septemberi. 3(3):30–41.

Day RD, Tibbetts IR, Secor SM. 2014. Physiological Responses to Short-Term Fasting among Herbivorous, Omnivorous, and Carnivorous Fishes. J Comp Physiol B. 184:497–512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-014-0813-4

Drewe KE, Horn MH, Dickson KA, Gawlicka A. 2004. Insectivore to Frugivore: Ontogenetic Changes in Gut Morphology and Digestive Enzyme Activity in The Characid Fish Brycon guatemalensis from Costa Rican Rain Forest Streams. Journal of Fish Biology. 64:890–902. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2004.0357.x

Enger ED, Ross FC, Bailey DB. 2007. Concepts in Biology. Twelfth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Genten F, Terwinghe E, Danguy A. 2009. Digestive System. In: Atlas of Fish Histology. Belgium: Science Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1201/b10183-8

Gioda CR, Pretto A, Freitas CS, Leitemperger J, Loro VL, Lazzari R, Lissner LA, Baldisserotto B, Salbego J. 2017. Different Feeding Habits Influence The Activity of Digestive Enzymes in Freshwater Fish. Ciência Rural. 47(3):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20160113

Gisbert E, Giménez G, Fernández I, Kotzamanis Y, Estévez A. 2009. Development of Digestive Enzymes in Common Dentex Dentex Dentex during Early Ontogeny. Aquaculture. 287:381–387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.10.039

Haryono. 2008. Sidat, Belut Bertelinga: Potensi dan Aspek Budidayanya. Bidang Zoologi, Pusat Penelitian Biologi-LIPI. Fauna Indonesia. 8(1):22–26.

Jellouli K, Bougatef A, Daassi D, Balti R, Barkia A, Nasri M. 2009. New Alkaline Trypsin from The Intestin of Grey Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) with High Activity at Low Temperature: Purification and Characterisation. Food Chemistry. 116:644–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.087

Kanno G, Yamaguchi T, Kishimura H, Yamaha E, Saeki H. 2009. Purification and Characteristics of Trypsin from Masu Salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) Cultured in Fresh-water. Fish Physiol Biochem. 36:637–645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-009-9336-4

Khojasteh SMB. 2012. The Morphology of the Post-Gastric Alimentary Canal in Teleost Fishes: A Brief Review. International Journal of Aquatic Science. 3(2):71–88.

Kishimura H, Klomklao S, Benjakul S, Chun BS. 2008. Characteristics of Trypsin from The Pyloric Caeca of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). Food Chemistry. 106:194–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.056

Klahan R, Areechon N, Yoonpundh R, Engkagul A. 2009. Characterization and Activity of Digestive Enzymes in Different Sizes of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.). 43:143–153.

Klomklao S, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Kishimura H, Simpson BK. 2007. Purification and Characterisation of Trypsins from The Spleen of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Food Chemistry. 100:1580–1589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.001

Krogdahl A, Sundby A, Holm H. 2015. Characteristics of Digestive Processes in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Enzyme pH Optima, Chyme pH, and Enzyme Activities. Aquaculture. 32(2):1-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.02.032

Kucharczyk D, Czarkowski T, Nowosad J, Targońska K, Kupren K, Wyszomirska E, Kujawa R, Horváth L, Müller T. 2016. Influence of Temperature on Successful European Eel Female Maturation under Controlled Conditions. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 16:477–482. https://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v16_2_28

Lazzari R, Neto JR, Pedron FA, Loro VL, Pretto A, Gioda CR. 2010. Protein Sources and Digestive Enzyme Activities in Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Sci. Agric. 67(3):259–266. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010000300002

Marzuqi M, Anjusary DN. 2013. Kecernaan Nutrien Pakan dengan Kadar Protein dan Lemak Berbeda pada Juvenil Ikan Kerapu Pasir (Epinephelus corallicola). Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis. 5(2):311–323.

Meilán IG, Ordó-ez-Grande B, Gallardo MA. 2014. Meal Timing Affects Protein-Sparing Effect by Carbohydrates in Sea Bream: Effects on Digestive and Absorptive Processes. Aquaculture. 434:121-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.08.005

Murashita K, Furuita H, Matsunari H, Yamamoto T, Awaji M, Nomura K, Nagao J, Tanaka H. 2012. Partial Characterization and Ontogenetic Development of Pancreatic Digestive Enzymes in Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica larvae. Fish Physiol Biochem. 39:895–905. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-012-9749-3

Murray RK, Bender DA, Botham KM, Kennelly PJ, Rodwell VW, Weil PA. 2009. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry. Twenty-Eighth Edition. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Nelson D, Cox M. 2009. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. Fifth Edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-68638-5

Nurhayati, Utomo NBP, Setiawati M. 2014. Perkembangan Enzim Pencernaan dan Pertumbuhan Larva Ikan Lele Dumbo, Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822, yang Diberi Kombinasi Cacing Sutra dan Pakan Buatan. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia. 14(3):167–178.

Parra AM, Rosas A, Lazo JP, Viana MT. 2007. Partial Characterization of The Digestive Enzymes of Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis under Culture Conditions. Fish Physiol Biochem. 33:223–231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-007-9134-9

Peña E, Hernández C, Álvarez-González CA, Ibarra-Castro L, Puello-Cruz A, Hardy RW. 2015. Comparative Characterization of Protease Activity in Cultured Spotted Rose Snapper Juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus). Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res. 43(4):641–650.

Prasertsan P, T Prachumratana. 2008. Properties of Protease and Lipase from Whole and Individual Organ of Viscera from Three Tuna Species. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 30(Suppl.1):77–86.

Pujante IM, Diaz-Lopez M, Mancera JM, Moyano FJ. 2016. Characterization of Digestive Enzymes Protease and Alpha-amylase Activities in The Thick-lipped Grey Mullet (Chelon labrosus, Risso 1827). Aquaculture Research. p.1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/are.13038.

Purwanto J. 2007. Pemeliharaan Benih Ikan Sidat (Anguilla bicolor) dengan Padat Tebar yang Berbeda. Balai Besar Pengembangan Budidaya Air Tawar. Sukabumi. Bul. Tek Lit. Akuakultur.6 (2).

Raji AR, Norouzi E. 2010. Histological and Histochemical Study on The Allimentary Canal in Walking Catfish (Clarias batracus) and Piranha (Serrasalmus nattereri). J Vet Res.11(1):1–10.

Rick W. 1974a. Trypsin. In Bergmeyer, H.U., ed. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol.2. Verlag Chemie Weinheim, Academic Press. New York and London: 1013–1024.

Rick W. 1974b. Chymotrypsin. In Bergmeyer, H.U., ed. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 2. Verlag Chemie Weinheim, Academic Press. New York and London: 1006–1012.

Rodiles A, Santigosa E, Herrera M, Hachero-Cruzado I, Cordero ML, Martinez-Llorens S, Lall SP, Alarcon FJ. 2012. Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Source on Digestive Proteolytic Enzyme Activity in Juvenile Senegalese Sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup 1850. Aquacult Int. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10499-012-9508-6.

Rungruangsak Torrisen K. 2014. Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.: Food Utilization, Protein Growth Efficiency and Maturation. Chapter 7. Norway: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Rungruangsak Torrisen K, R Moss, LH Andresen, A Berg, R Waagbo. 2006. Different Expression of Trypsin and Chymotrypsin in Relation to Growth in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 32:7–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-005-0630-5

Russell PJ, Wolfe SL, Hertz PE, Starr C, McMillan B. 2008. Biology: The Dinamic Science. First Edition. Canada: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Saryono. 2011. Biokimia Enzim. Yogyakarta: Nuha Medika.

Sasongko A, Purwanto J, Mu'minah S, Arie U. 2007. Sidat: Panduan Agribisnis Penangkapan, Pendederan, dan Pembesaran. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.

Setijanto, Sulistyo I, Budianto E. 2014. Penentuan Waktu Pengambilan Benih dan Diet Ikan Sidat (Anguilla bicolor McClelland) di Sungai Serayu. Omni-Akuatika. XIII(19):46–52.

Susilo U, Sukardi P, Affandi R. 2016. Alkaline Protease, Amylase and Cellulase Activities of Yellow Rasbora, Rasbora lateristriata Blkr., at Different Feeding Levels. Molekul. 11(2):190–201. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.jm.2016.11.2.254

Susilo U, Yuwono E, Rachmawati FN, Priyanto S, Hana. 2015. Karakteristik Enzim Digesti, Protease dan Amilase, Ikan Gurami (Osphronemus gouramy Lac.) pada Fase Pertumbuhan. Biosfera. 32(2):134–142. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.mib.2015.32.2.305

Uscanga A, Moyano FJ, Alvarez CA. 2010. Assessment of Enzymatic Efficiency on Protein Digestion in The Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Fish Physiol Biochem. 36:1079–1085. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-010-9385-8

Wang Q, Gao Z, Zhang N, Shi Y, Xie X, Chen Q. 2010. Purification and Characterization of Trypsin from the Intestin of Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus). J. Agric. Food Chem. 58(1):655–659. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf903052s

Xiong DM, Xie CX, Zhang HJ, Liu HP. 2011. Digestive Enzymes along Digestive Tract of a Carnivorous Fish Glyptosternum maculatum (Sisoridae, Siluriformes). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 95:56–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00984.x

Article Reads

Total: 56 Abstract: 56

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


This website is maintained by:
The Faculty of Biology Publishing 
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
Jalan dr. Suparno 63 Grendeng
Purwokerto 53122

Telephone: +62-281-625865
Email: biologi@unsoed.ac.id

This website uses: 
OJS | Open Journal System
A free journal management and publishing system that has been developed by the PKP (Public Knowledge Project) version

All article content metadata are registered to:
An official nonprofit Registration Agency of the International Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Foundation.

Articles in this journal are indexed by:

Complete index list »