FAKTOR RESIKO GANGGUAN FUNGSI GINJAL PADA PEKERJA BENGKEL LAS DI KOTA PURWOKERTO

Anjar Astuti Ferdhiani (1) , Hernayanti Hernayanti (2) , Bambang Heru Budianto (3)


(1) Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
(2) 
(3) 


Abstract


Welding was one of the industry in Purwokerto City. One of the exhaust particulate material from the welding process, this will be the potential occurrence of exposure to workers and caused renal dysfunction. Several risk factors have contributed in caused kidney difunction of workers. This study aims to determine the levels of cadmium metal (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) with creatinine and Glomerulus Filtration Rate (GFR). The correlation of risk factors for renal dysfunction with creatinine and GFR. The risk factors that play a major role in caused kidney dysfunction. The method used is cross sectional. Sampling using purposive sampling with giving inform consent to the respondent. Provision of questionnaires and blood sampling as much as 3 ml according to ethical clearens. Measurement of metal content of Cd, Cr and Pb; serum creatinine and LFG levels. Number of respondents 30 people with 95% confidence level. The results showed that levels of Cr, Cd and Pb were 0.049 + 0.12 ppm; 1,029 + 2.38 ppm; 4,933+ 11,66 ppm. Cr levels are still within normal limits with levels but Cd and Pb exceeding the normal threshold. Creatinine levels of 1.867 + 0.446 mg / dl showed higher than normal. Minimum of GFR decrease in welding workers was 44 mL / min / 1.73 m2. Risk factors significantly correlated with creatinine and GFR was levels of Pb (p <0.05). Risk factors that play a major role in caused kidney dysfunction in welding workers in Purwokerto city is Pb content with 12.9% percentage effect on serum creatinine level and 9% effect on Glomerulus Filtration Rate.

References


Arikunto, S. 2005. Manajemen Penelitian. Rineka Cipta, Jakarta.

Acien, N., A.M.T Plaza., E. Guallar., P. Muntner and E. Sibergeld. 2009. Blood cadmium and lead and chronic kidney diseases in US adult : A Joint analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology. 170 (9) : 1156-1164.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry). 2012. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. U.S. Departement of Health and Human Service: Georgia.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry). 2012.Toxicological Profile for Chromium. U.S. Departement of Health and Human Service: Goergia.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry). 2012.Toxicological Profile for Lead. U.S. Departement of Health and Human Service: Goergia.

Bintoro. 2007. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan Pemakaian Alat Pelindung Muka pada Pengelas di Bengkel Las Listrik Kawasan Barito Kota Semarang. Skripsi. Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang.

Budiono, S. A.M. 2003. Hiperkes dan Keselamatan Kerja. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro Semarang, Semarang.

Cohen, E.P. and J.Jr. Lemann. 1991. The Role of The Laboratory in Evaluation of Kidney Function. Clin Chem . 27(6):785-96.

Cooper, B.A., P. Branley and L. Bulfone. 2010. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Early Versus Late Initiation of Dialysis. N Engl J Med; 363: 609–619.

Deviandhoko. 2012. Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Gangguan Fungsi Paru Pada Pekerja Pengelasan di Kota Pontianak. Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia. 11(2).

Dyasis. 2002. Prosedur Pemeriksaan Laboratorium Klinik. C.V. Trisigma, Semarang.

Franchini, I. and A. Mutti. 1988. Selected Toxicological Aspects of Chromium (VI) Compounds. Science Total Environmental. 71:379-387.

Gempur, S. 2004. Manajemen Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Kerja, Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka.

Go, A.S., G.M. Chertow., D. Fan and C.Y. Hsu. 2004. Chronic Kidney Disease and the Risk of Death, Cardiovascular Events and Hospitalization. NEJM. 351:1296-305.

Gowda, S., P.B. Desai., S.S. Kulkarni., V.V. Hull., A.A.K. Math and S.N. Vernekar. 2010. Markers of Renal Function Tests. N Am J Med Sci. 2(4): 170-3.

Halla,. S and O. Stephan. 2011. Smoking is A Risk Factor in The Progression To Kidney Failure. International Society of Nephrology. 80: 516-523.

Halimi, J.M., B. Giraudeau and S. Vol. 2005. Effects of Current Smoking and Smoking Discontinuation on Renal Function and Proteinuria in The General Population. Kidney Int ; 58: 1285–1292.

Hidayati, T., K. Haripurnomo dan Suhardi. 2008. Hubungan antara Hipertensi, Merokok dan Minuman Suplemen Energi dan Kejadian Penyakit Ginjal Kronik. Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat. 24(2): 90-102.

Jasep, L., L. Hellstrom and T. Alfven. 2000. Low Level Exposure to Cadmium and Early Kidney Damage: The OSCAR Study. Occupational Environmental Medical. 57(10):668-672.

Johnson, D. W., R.D.J. Graham., H.M. Timothy., J.L. Marie., P.D. Matthew and P.D. Matthew. 2012. Chronic Kidney Disease and Automatic Reporting of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate : New Developments and Revised Recommendations. Medical Journal of Australia : 197(4) : 1-5.

Kazi, T.G., I. A. Hassan., K. Naveed., K.I. Mohammad., B.A. Mohammad., J . Nussarat and A.K. Ghulam. 2008. Copper, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel, and ZincLevels in Biological Samples of Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 122:1–18.

Kenefick, R.W and M.N. Sawka. 2007. Hydration at the Work Site – a Review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 26(5). 597 – 603.

Lesley, A.I., H.S. Christopher., T. Hochine., H. John., I.F. Harold., G. Tom., W. John., M. Kusekjane., V.L. Federick., L.Z. Yaping., C. Josefh and S. Andrew. 2012. Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate from Creatinine and Cystatin C. The New England Journal of Medicine. 150(9): 604-612.

Levey, A.S and J. Coresh. 2012. Chronic Kidney Disease. The Lancet 379 : 165-180.

Liu, C.S and H.W. Kou. 2000.Urinary N-Acetyl-Beta-Glucosaminidaseas an Indicator of Renal Dysfunction in Electroplatting Workers. Medical College Hospital,Taichung, Taiwan.

Maanaiya, I. 2005. Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Tindakan Tidak Aman (Unsave Act/Substandart Practice) Pekerja di Bagian Press. PT. YIMM. Tesis. Pasca Sarjana Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta.

Messner, B. and D. Bernhard. 2010. Cadmium and Cardiovascular Disease : Cell Biology, Pathophysiology and Epidemiological Relevance. Biometals. 23 (5): 811-822

Omokhodion, F. O. and A. M. Adebayo. 2012. Occupational Hazards and Self-Reported Health Problems of Butchers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Public Health, 21(2):131-134.

Orth, S.R. and S.I. Hallan. 2008. Smoking: A Risk Factor for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease and for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Renal Patients–Absence of Evidence or Evidence of Absence. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 3: 226–236.

Olmedo, P., A.Pla., A. F. Hernández., O. López-Guarnido., L. Rodrigo. and Gil, F. 2010. Validation of a Method to Quantify Chromium, Cadmium, Manganese, Nickel and Leading Human Whole Blood, Urine, Saliva and Hair Samples by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 659(1-2): 60-67.

Papanikolaou, C.N., G.H. Eleftheria., B. Stamatis., N.T. George and M.T Aristidis. 2005. Lead toxicity Update. A Brief Review. Med Sci Monit. 11 (10): 329-336.

Palmer, W. G. 1989. Effects of Welding on Health VI. Miami, FL American Welding Society.

Philip, A.T. and Gerson . 1994. Lead Poisoning-Part I. Clin Lab med. 14: 423-44.

Peter, C.G. 1998. Toxicology Review Of Hexavalent Chromium.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C.

Saputro , E. N. 2007. Kandungan Sakarin, Siklamat, Kafein, Taurin dan Zat Gizi lain dalam minuman berenergi serta frekuensi konsumsi oleh sopir angkutan kota di kecamatan tembalang kota semarang. Undergraduate thesis, Diponegoro University.

Satarug, S and S.H. Garret. 2010. Cadmium, Environmental, Exposure and Health Outcome. Environmental Health Perspect 118 (2) : 182-190.

Singarimbuan, M & E. Sofian. 1989. Metode Penelitian Survai. LP3ES, Jakarta

Smith, R.G., F.Y. Falck and L.J. Fine. 1980. Occupational Cadmium Exposure and Renal Status. Am J Ind Med. 4:541-549.

Sriwidharto, 1987. Petunjuk Kerja Las. PT. Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta.

Sudarsana, E., S. Onny dan Suhartono. 2007.Hubungan Riwayat Pajanan Kromium dengan Gangguan Fungsi Ginjal pada Pekerja Pelapisan Logam di Kabupaten Tegal.Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia. 12 (1).

Suratman, 2007.Teknik Mengelas. Pustaka Grafika, Bandung.

Tawatsupa, B. 2012. Association Between Occupational Heat Stress and Kidney Disease Among 37.816 Worker in the Thai Cohort Study (TCS). Journal of Epidemiology, 22(3): 251-260.

Weaver, V.M., B.G. Jaar. and B.S. Schwartz. 2005. Associations Among Lead Dose Biomarkers, Uric Acid and Reanal Function in Korea Lead Workers. Environ Health Perspect. 113(1): 36-42.

Weeden, R.P and Q. Lief. 1991. Chromium-Induced Kidney Disease. Environmental Health Perpective. 92. Pp. 71-74.

Winifred, G. and C.E. James, 2001. Effect Welding of Health, XI. American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami,


Article Reads

Total: 49 Abstract: 49

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

This website is maintained by:
The Faculty of Biology Publishing 
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
Jalan dr. Suparno 63 Grendeng
Purwokerto 53122

Telephone: +62-281-625865
Email: biologi@unsoed.ac.id

This website uses:
OJS | Open Journal System
A free journal management and publishing system that has been developed by the PKP (Public Knowledge Project) version 2.4.8.0.

All article content metadata are registered to:
Crossref
An official nonprofit Registration Agency of the International Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Foundation.

Articles in this journal are indexed by:

Complete index list »